High Confidence and Memory Recall

Can a person truly be trusted or accurate if they are asked a question and they answer with high confidence? When it comes to the highly assumed positive correlation between high confidence and accuracy in recalling memory, it is believed that animals used this as an adaptive technique to ultimately survive and reproduce. However, it can be argued that there is little to no relationship as often a person can inaccurately recall a memory while still having a high amount of confidence. In this research study, subjects will study semantic words to later recall them and also have their confidence rated during that process. The reason for this study is to analyze just how confidence and memory correlates. Recently many, such as Van Koppen, argue that the relation between the two factors is so weak that it “should never be allowed as evidence for memory accuracy in the courtroom.” and it has been proven amongst several cases that the correlation is not as strong as people assume it is. The following research study will not be the first of study this phenomenon. In the past, like with Tulving’s study, it has been discovered that the likeliness of a high confidence-memory recall error increases if the subject at the time is presented with a similar but different scene material. Furthermore, in Koriat’s research study he found that there was a positive correlation between the two factors when asking people general knowledge questions and a negative correlation whenever asking people consensually incorrect questions or questions that most people normally missed. This means that most people chose the correct answer with high confidence for the general knowledge questions and the incorrect but most popular answer with high confidence for the consensually incorrect ones. For the study, two separate experiments were conducted. For experiment 1, a certain amount of subjects studied items, 15 words, to then recall these words in a test consisting of 4 different types of items. These types of items included the words studied, highly similar words in comparison of the actual words studied, words with little similarity in comparison of the actual words studied, and words of distinct or no similarity to the actual words studied. After each question the subject would then rate their confidence rating. To eliminate bias or misleading data several procedures were put into this experiment. As a result from the experiment the data reveals that as a whole, the more a subject had confidence the more they tended on being accurate in recalling. These results are proven from the multiple positive correlations although there were a few negative correlations which came from subjects choosing a highly similar word, when compared to the actual words studied, with high confidence. A deeper interpreted discussion of the data presented can be found in the article listed below. The second experiment, which was conducted the almost exact same way as experiment one, took place shortly after the first and produced almost identical results as the first experiment. As the study comes to a close, it is stated that it just depends on the situation to know or assume whether or not confidence and accuracy is strongly correlated. “This means that in some circumstances, one can rely on confidence as a proxy for strength of evidence that a memory is correct but in other situations the opposite holds true and caution is warranted.”

Work Cited

Roediger, Henry L., and K. Andrew Desoto. “Confidence and Memory: Assessing Positive and Negative Correlations.” Memory 22.1 (2013): 76­91. Web.



When writing a whole new article based on the research study I found it quite difficult. My main problem with this was summarizing the research. As I tried only keeping material that was essential it became very hard to differentiate from what I really needed and what I could leave out of the summary while still keeping the audience informed and without misleading them in anyway. Somehow though I managed to turn seventeen pages of facts and information in about a 600 word article. As a sacrifice for having a short article I did not put in most of the information in the study that discussed the history and findings of past studies of the correlation of confidence and accuracy of memory recall. After rereading the research several times I finally got the hang of it however there was still the problem of interpreting the graphs and data that were involved in the study as well as not plagiarizing. On top of that I could not figure out a way to make my summary more appealing so that the audience will not actually get bored after reading the first two sentences. In comparison with the original news article my article presents itself as a very subpar copycat at best. With that being said I have to say that my perspective has definitely changed for all journalists because this job is no where close to being easy by any means. That is why is better to leave work like this to the experts who actually enjoy doing stuff such as this and know what they are doing.


Can You Say Discrimination?

After viewing the video given below, I am honestly angry and in total disgust. I would not feel this way if the people, who viewed the actors stealing the bike, treated them all equally whether it be to just walk away from the situation or confront the thief or call the police on the them. It makes me very upset and angry because these experiments resulted in real outcomes that happen too often in reality. Honestly, if I were an on going bystander put in that situation, I could not tell you what exactly I would do but one thing for sure is that I would have done the same thing for every single actor. I would be lying if I said I was appalled from the outcomes but I already assumed how they would end being as though I myself am an African-American male. Without a doubt the events that take place within the video would be classified as discrimination. Discrimination perfectly describes those events as someone was treated differently or, in the video’s case, extremely differently based on their group memberships. Not only did the bystander’s obviously have a negative assumption but they also decided to act solely on that or those assumptions which furthermore proves the idea of discrimination. For those that still naive, discrimination is absolutely real and it will never go away unless we, as the people in our society, become less ignorant and more humane and sophisticated.

Online Personality Tests

Before diving into these personality tests, I had already assumed that these tests would imprecisely describe my personality for the most part but touch on few traits that are actually a part of my personality. After taking the first test, I feel my presumption was accurate as I did not agree with a lot of they described as my personality moreover the career choices they suggested for me. A example of a statement I disagreed with is when a result stated that I could have a good career in teacher when actually I cannot tolerate a large amount of kids at one time or even a few of very misbehaved kids. I also felt that some questions I could not relate to enough so that may have influenced inaccurate descriptions. As of the other tests, they clashed with my presumption. Unlike like the first test the others, more than half of the time, created precise descriptions. It’s funny because while reading the descriptions I just had to smile because I would realize that at that moment that they described the type of person I am or would tend to do. I giggled a little when a result from one test stated that I enjoyed and found satisfaction in sexual activity because I really do. While reading the results of one of the last tests I felt that they may have bolstered my personality a little as I felt appreciated for traits that I kind of have noticed but was not absolutely sure that I showed that traits always. Still there was some inaccurate guessing about my personality but I highly doubt that any personality test is 100% accurate while still be specific and descriptive about several traits of a person. In all some credibility can be given to tests such as the ones I took however one needs to be careful of putting forth all trust and faith into these tests to provide them information of who exactly they are.

Sources for the Personality Tests

http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp    http://www.personalitytest.net/cgi-bin/q.pl                                                     http://personality-testing.info/tests/BIG5.php                                          http://colorquiz.com/

Orthorexia: Fact or Fiction?

After reading the proposed criteria I noticed some distinct withdrawals and effects from orthorexia nervosa that I believe are completely true however not everything within the criteria I deemed factual in some cases and not at all in others. Some of the statements made in criteria A seemed to have some exaggeration involved of just how people with this actually felt. Moreover I strongly disagree that severe weight loss is the result of malnutrition when relating it to orthorexia. I couldnt help but acknowledge that there are potentially ties with this disorder and anorexia or bulimia nervosa. In all, eating healthy should not be considered an eating disorder because the boundary between eating healthy and having a mental disorder is not greatly set. I did not think my opinion however after reading the first article my it has slightly. It has convinced me a bit more that orthorexia could actually be a mental disorder when it gave an details on someone who has experienced such. It described the boundary between eating healthy and orthorexia more. In the second article, the possible origins of this disorder is discussed and how people could possibly develop this disorder followed by noticeable negative effects from the disorder. Similar to the first article, this one gives more insight of the disorder and its negative effects also mentioning the distinct differences between simply eating healthy and eating healthy to the point where it becomes unhealthy a.k.a orthorexia. On a final note while I had a big disbelief of orthorexia nervosa in the beginning, I now believe that it is an actual disorder that is trending within our society more than ever today and more people need to be aware of this disorder to prevent it from ever occurring to a friend, loved one, or even to themselves.




Acquired Intelligence during School

In the first video dealing with the blue and brown eyed children, I felt highly sympathetic for what Jane Elliot purpose was. She successfully presented to young children what, and how discrimination or racism works. With a simple and nearly harmless experiment procedure she has and will permanently change people’s perception. Coming from self experience she was right when she noted that discrimination happens fairly often. Moreover the aspect of feeling the power of superiority over others who are different is a logical and reasonable explanation for it all. In the second video stereotype threats are discussed. This video sheds some light on the different kind of pressure that students might have to deal with in school. Just like discrimination, I also believe that stereotype threats have an affect on a significant amount of students. The experiment gave an good example of what actually goes on in school and reality. In the last video where they discuss the Pygmalion Effect, I would not say that I agree with this video as much as the other ones. While there were obviously one or two factors that played a big role in student’s lives, the others seemed to be less noticeable. It will take a lot more to convince me that the other factors play an important role as well. The experiment gave a good representative of how possibly students are affected by all four factors. Throughout my school career I have witnessed as well as been victim to these problems discussed today. Some I have dealt with more than others however I didn’t not have it as bad as others in the world. Definitely something needs to change within our education system however I cannot specify what exactly needs to be done. If it were so easy to fix the problem it would have been solved ages ago but that is not the case when dealing with these. Hopefully a change will come so that students are not discriminated, mistreated, or had a feeling of inferiority because of school.

Restoration Sleep Theory

After watching the TED talks video, I found the restoration sleep theory to be most convincing. As the speaker says in the video, essentially “stuff”, within the brain,  gets used up during the day. Around that time we are awake and we actively use our brains to solve problems, interact with other people, comprehending signs and readings as well as expressing ones feelings or emotions. When the day ends, during the night is when people tend to sleep and that is when the brain restores itself as the speaker also mentions that the brain is restoring, and building back up what was lost during the day. Currently back in fashion a lot more of people will probably start to believe in this theory as well. To further support my argument the following two articles, which both support the restoration theory, will be discussed. In the first article the theory is drawn out even more as the author says that while sleeping NREM “is important for restoring physiological functions, while REM “is essential in restoring mental functions”. Moreover the article continues to list research studies that have provided evidence to this theory such as the idea that “the brain utilizes sleep to flush out waste toxins”. In the second article explains different things about the theory such as the growth hormones that only release into the body during sleep and adenosine, a by product that when built up drives a person to become sleepy and it is only emptied from the brain during sleep as well. Lastly I cannot be sure of how trustworthy these articles are however I do believe they are beneficial and not misleading. In conclusion I believe that the restoration theory is the reason sleep is most important in why we, as people, need sleep.

Works Cited



Evil Video Games

The argument today is whether parents should be concerned for their children because the threat that violent video games supposedly serve. They have been criticized to increase children’s aggressive behavior. What follows are two articles, one will be agree to that statement while the other will be opposed to it. The first article discusses why parents should. It begins by stating that children who play violent games will “inappropriately resolve anxiety by externalizing it” instead of a more positive less harmful way of getting rid of anxiety such as calming oneself down or talking to another person about it. The article continues to state further negative effects on children like the less likely of peer interaction within a child as well as a lesser ability to control their anger. These statements are then supported by studies. Near the end, the article gives advice and tips for parents to effectively lessen the likeliness of their child or children ascending their aggressive behavior. The next article is an actual research study conducted on UK children ages five through seven. In this article they thoroughly explain how the experiment will take place. After the data is collected, a conclusion is given as well as an explanation of the data. A brief statement given is that when there was no significant correlation found between aggressive behavior of a child and video games, however one was found when a correlation was made between TV and a child aggressive behavior. The only consistently negative effect found in the study about violent video games were the peer interaction which decreased. To conclude the article it gave its limitations. After reading the limitations a lot of doubt rises on how correct the study actually represented the relation of children’s aggressive behavior and violent video games. While the first article repeatedly points out a negative effect, not once did it state that violent video games should not be allowed or permanently banned. Moreover if I trusted the second article it would only bolster my opinion. In all, I do not think violent video games should be banned or should not be allowed.

Exploring the Mind of a Killer

I picked this topic to learn about simply because it appealed to me more than the others. While I was intrigued by a few topics, “Exploring the Mind of a Killer” would I thought inform me of the view behind the brain of murderers. In the short video TED discusses that when it comes to serial killers the most important things to look at are the genetics, brain damage and the environment. Interestingly enough time is also a major factor to look into. I found this statement cool because I previously thought that there were only similar problems within the genes of a serial killer and their early childhood experiences. The video goes on to say that one thing serial killers have in common is that there is damage within the orbital cortex and the anterior temporal cortex however, between the serial killers, the extensive brain damaged acquired vary. The video then expresses deeper in tell of exactly what all serial killers have in common which brings of the discussion of MAOA, also known as the Major Violence Gene. Apparently it has been scientifically proven that this gene is within a suffice amount of people in the population. Just another fact I found interesting because I, myself, might have the same gene meaning that I could’ve grown up to be a serial killers just like the ones discussed today. Moreover it is said that more boys receive this gene from the X-chromosome of their mother. With this gene, they state that your brain is exposed to too much serotonin, making the brain insensitive to a  neurotransmitter that is suppose to calm and relax an individual. The theory of expressing this gene however, is that an individual must have gone through an extremely traumatic experience prior to their puberty stage. The videos finally closes with a few personal comments from the speaker himself. After watching this video it occurred to me that I have in fact, noticed that more serial killers that have been brought to my view have been males. Furthermore I became very skeptical by the ending of the video because it seemed as the the speaker tried to inform the audience that the information today was only a snip bit of truth behind serial killers and that there is a lot more of information not discovered yet and  to be revealed eventually. Thus,  my strange research idea. The study would be a correlation between the heart rate of serial killers and no serial killers. I would use the a series of various questions within this study and involve a lie detector. My sample would be a random selection of participants currently in prison however the number of men and women would be the same for this experiment.

Marion MacDonald Wright

Another woman who has made contributions to the field of psychology is one of the name Marion Macdonald Wright.
Born in New Westminister, British Columbia Marion Macdonald Wright was almost certain or destined to achieve highly as she took after her mom as well as having two older siblings to look up to. Growing up she “succeeded at everything she attempted to do”. With dreams of originally becoming a journalist or reporter Wright attended University of British Columbia for most of her college years. There she met an icon in her life, a professor named John Allen Irving. As described in her words words about the professor, “The most brilliant lecturer and most wonderful professor I could imagine.”, he became very influential to her. Soon after graduating college, Wright was drawn into the field of psychology as a psychologist at Shaughnessy Hospital due to a recommendation from professor Irving. For a duration of about five years while gaining experience in that department, she often conducted group therapy and bolstered the expanding of the Psychiatry Department. Eventually through her work and efforts, she became known as the first clinical psychologist to practice on the West Coast. After her job at Shaughnessy Hospital she moved on to the University of Toronto for a fellowship in psychology in 1948. Although she had moved locations she continued to serve as a psychologist at Sunnybrook Hospital while teaching courses in personality appraisal. Wright after some time had found Morgan Wright, her current husband now, and became pregnant. Still wanting to achieve more Wright wanted to obtain a PhD but her pregnancy interrupted that goal of hers. She was never actually able to finish what she had started at the University of Toronto before the next move to Regina in Canada. There she hung up psychology and took care of her two young children, only teaching introduction psychology courses sometimes. Marion Macdonald Wright passed away on November 11th, 2015.

Intro Blog

Hello ladies and gentleman! Here at Austin College I will be at your service today as well as for the rest of the spring semester. Welcome to the hottest blog spot on the block. Here and only here yours truly, Morris Shell III, will introduce the most extravagant information relating to PSY101. For those of you who do not have a clue what PSY is, let me explain. PSY is an acronym for psychology or the study of human brain activity and behavior. I myself like to associate this word with people referred to as psychics. Become overwhelmed with awe as the best topics this semester will be discussed such as Personality Theory, Emotion, and Personality & Culture. Interesting facts and revelations might come to you as why your friends act or feel the way they do. I might even mention some of the less popular topics such as Sleep, Neurons, and Brain Structures. From that one might learn to sleep for at least eight hours to be a happier person and stuff like that which sounds interesting as learning about types of grasses. In all, here will be the place to be.
Just so you know a little bit about me I’ll tell you a couple of things about yours truly. First comes my identity. As you may already know my name is Morris Shell III and I am a freshman at Austin College. There I will be staying until I graduate with a Business Finance degree. Before I came to Austin College, I attended Irving High School in Irving, Texas where I started my football career that drew me into Austin College. What comes next is a snip bit of my personality. I am quite a social fiend with a friendly attitude in need of continuous activities to do in order to stay happy and awake. Finally comes an interesting explanation of why I’m in the class anyway. It all started one day during fall semester. I was a computer looking up new classes to take when I found out I needed humanities credit and that’s when I found this class. The rest is basically history. That is just a little bit about me.
After this semester though, there is just one question others, including myself, would like to be able to answer. Are we really as mentality stable as we say we are as a society?