Media Production Reflection

Overall, I found it pretty challenging having to summarize a whole research article and not exceed the word count of the original news article. The news article had just over 600 words and so upon starting my article, I was sure it would take a lot to reach that word length, but quite the opposite happened. As a result, I had to cut out a lot of the details mentioned in the research article, specifically with respect to how each study was conducted. This was hard to do because the researchers conducted 5 studies. Upon finishing my article though, I realized I had not really cut out much important information. The details which I cut out were not totally necessary for my article, as they included things like the types of statistical analyses used, the ethnicities of the surnames used for ranking, and how the researchers operationalized their variables. I also chose to leave out the fact some of the studies involved breaking the participants up into groups because the research article did not make it clear whether or not random assignment was used. I also refrained from claiming that the results were not generalizable because it was unknown how the researchers obtained their samples.

Before beginning the article, I first came up with my title. Trying to come up with a title which would draw readers in without promoting false information was tricky. But this just made me take-on the perspective of a journalist and better understand what journalism entails. After completing this series of writing projects, I understand the difficulty with which journalists summarize research findings, having to be very careful not to plagiarize. I also am impressed with how the author of the original news article researched information outside of the studies to include in his article. Overall, I understand a bit more the difficulty with which journalists try to inform the public by researching/summarizing experiments and adding elements which will attract readers.

When it came to deciding what information to leave out so as to not exceed the word count, there were a few things I made sure to add to my article. I first made sure that I emphasized the correlational aspect of the findings. I next made sure to include the ethnicities of the participants, along with the fact that the researchers themselves decided what names were easy and difficult to pronounce. These inclusions were useful for my commentary in the article, as I offered a little critique on the experimental design. Finally, I made sure to quote the researchers on their addressed limitations, along with adding my own commentary on these limitations.


Easily Pronounceable Names Appear to Promote Likeability and Success

It is no surprise how much power can reside in a name. Perhaps one of the best examples of how influential a person’s name can be is the current American President, as saying his name alone is enough to trigger strong emotions and debate. For the average young adult, on the other hand, it is possible the ease with which their name is pronounced may affect how others judge them. A series of experimental studies published in 2011 revealed a consistent correlation between name fluency and likeability.

The researchers behind these studies included Adam Alter of New York University, along with Simon Laham and Peter Koval, both of the University of Melbourne. They referred back to past research done on “processing fluency,” which is the subjective experience with which one accomplishes a cognitive task with ease or difficulty, to create their hypothesis: the “name-pronunciation effect.” This hypothesis states that easy-to-pronounce names (not based on foreignness or length), along with the people who possess these names, tend to receive more positive feedback from others.

To investigate their hypothesis, the researchers conducted a series of 5 studies. The first involved 35 mostly female participants of Asian ethnicity. The researchers used their own intuitions about pronunciation ease to compile a list of 50 surnames. The participants were asked to rank the surnames on fluency, unusualness, and liking. Statistical analyses showed fluency was correlated with liking, which was not affected by unusualness, length, or orthographic regularity. The second study had 35 mostly female undergraduate students of European ethnicity view a mock ballot consisting of 12 surnames and rank the candidates in order of preference. Statistical analyses revealed the candidates with fluent names ranked significantly higher. The third study involved 74 mostly female undergraduates of European and Asian descent reading a mock newspaper article which outlined information regarding the personal life and policies of a candidate whose surname varied in fluency. Students were asked to rate the degree to which they thought he would be a decent candidate and the ease of surname pronunciation. The researchers found a positive relationship between surname fluency and candidate evaluation. The fourth study asked 55 mostly female undergraduate students to rate surnames presented as belonging to either Australian (in-group) or American (out-group) citizens. For both conditions, fluency was the only predictor correlated with liking. In the final study, the researchers compiled a list of 500 lawyer names and had American undergraduates rate a subset of names in terms of fluency and foreignness. Analyses showed lawyers with easier-to pronounce names, whether Anglo-American or foreign, occupied superior positions.

While the study achieved consistent results, the researchers did mention having a lack of prior research support for their hypothesis. With this in mind, it is important to acknowledge the limiting power of name fluency throughout information-rich environments, as people judge each other based on more information besides name fluency. The researchers hinted at the plausible impracticality of the name-pronunciation effect in their publishing by stating: “Because we often make judgments about others in information-rich environments (in which ample information besides name fluency may be available), pronunciation ease may contribute little.”

Before using these findings to predict your own success or to plan the names of your future children, you may wish to read the full article for yourself and possibly take the findings with a pinch of salt. In doing so, you will recognize that the experimental design consisted of a few flaws, including the likely incorporation of researcher bias (the researchers used their own intuition to decide what names are easy and difficult to pronounce). In addition, seeing as how all of the participants were undergraduate students and how some of the studies only consisted of one ethnicity of participants, it is likely random sampling was not used.

 

 

 

 

Link to news article:                                                                https://www.wired.com/2012/02/name-pronunciation-success/

Link to scholarly journal article: https://ppw.kuleuven.be/okp/_pdf/Laham2012TNPEW.pdf


Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance refers to the internal tension which arises when we opt to engage in a behavior which conflicts with our prior beliefs and values. In order to reduce this tension, most people resort to either justifying the behavior by altering their prior values, creating a belief which allows them to justify the behavior, or stopping the behavior altogether. This tension is not uncommon to have. For example, I studied very much during my first semester of organic chemistry. Out of all of the classes I was in, I spent the most time working on Ochem. I used a variety of techniques to try and master the material to a point where I felt comfortable with it. The second exam of the semester did not go so well for me even though I put in so much effort and hard work. Before and even during the exam, I truly believed I was going to do well. When I got the exam back and saw the grade, I did get upset and had much cognitive dissonance, so much so, I came up with multiple beliefs as to why this could be. The first was that it had been the professor’s fault for not teaching the material well, giving such a hard test, and then being super picky when grading it. This was easy for me to believe because most people did not do very well either. Another justification I made was that it really does not matter in the long run because I am only taking the class to get credit to go to medical school; I will not need to apply what I learned (or apparently did not learn) in the future. Although this second realization is kind of true, it really influenced the rest of my semester because it caused me to not study as much for the class. Why study about elimination reactions when really I should be learning more practical things, like how to do taxes? Safe to say, I ended up doing well in the class. Another common example is when I sometimes go out and do community service. While I value the importance of donation drives, I do not enjoy spending 2-3 hours working in the heat. In this case, I tend to convince myself that working in the heat is not so bad.

I have mixed emotions about cognitive dissonance. On one hand, it promotes lies which we tell ourselves. In the video for example, the $1 participants lied to themselves and to others about how enjoyable the task was. I think this is something to be avoided. In addition, altering a past belief is not a healthy thing to do, unless it really is for the better. In my case, I solidly believed I had studied and worked hard enough to prepare for the exam. I am not going to completely rethink this because of a single test score. I also think cognitive dissonance allows us to justify unhealthy behaviors. For example, smokers who justify their behavior by saying it is okay as long as they do not drink or as long as they stick to a certain limit. On the other hand, when it does not result in the justification of unhealthy behaviors, it allows us to regain our emotional equilibrium by promoting a sense of behavioral control and understanding.


Making Stress Your Friend

In her TedTalk, health psychologist Kelly McGonigal says she wants to make you “better” at stress, as she claims stress makes you social. She discusses 3 studies in the talk. The first study was what caused her to change her mind about the way she viewed stress. The study involved tracking the stress levels of 30,000 adults in the U.S. for 8 years. The results showed people who were stressed while finding stress to be harmful had a 43% greater chance of dying. Those who were stressed but did not find stress to be harmful had the lowest risk of dying, even compared to those who experienced little stress. Basically, the study revealed one becomes more vulnerable to premature death by being stressed about stress. Although the study revealed interesting results and had a large sample, it may not be completely trustworthy. The way the researchers operationalized their variables in terms of how they actually measured stress and risk of death was not mentioned. I was surprised at how she made it appear that this one study alone caused her to change the way she looked at stress for herself and for others. This lack of triangulation does not add credibility to her ideas. In addition, the large sample used in the study took place on people in the U.S., which shows the results are not completely generalizable. I think she should have searched for/mentioned other studies which could have supported the idea. Claiming that being stressed about being stressed increases the risk of premature death is a big thing to say and I think multiple supporting sources are needed before you can just preach something like that.

The second study she mentioned was a social stress test done at Harvard. Results showed that when participants viewed stress responses as helpful,  their blood vessels stayed relaxed and refrained from constricting. Again the way the researchers defined their variable was not mentioned. I think this study is more easily supported by scientific methods. I also liked this study because it indirectly showed how each and every one of us has self-control over our stress. I believe you only succumb to stress when you allow yourself to. The study showed that by not allowing yourself to view stress in such a negative way, you can in fact control the effects of stress on your body.

She discussed the way in which Oxytocin promotes a stress response which makes you feel the need to be surrounded by people who care about you. I do not completely agree with this. Based on personal experience and the experiences of others in my life, being stressed may make you purposely try to isolate yourself, especially if the stress comes from school. The final study she mentioned concluded that caring creates resilience, which ties in to the prior discussion about Oxytocin. Finally, when being interviewed after the talk, she stressed the importance of meaning in life decisions. She basically stated that meaning facilitates your trust in thinking you can handle stress. I agree with this because meaning plays a strong role in many psychological aspects, such as memory.

 

 


Staying Motivated in College

Contrary to popular belief, living as a college student is not easy. Although you have more freedom when it comes to social engagments and class-picking, life in college is really an opportunity for reality to hit you….hard. For example, most college students do not always have the best financial or roommate situation. At some point, the average college student just ends up glaring at their roommate who just walked in while in the process of eating out of a “just add water” cup of mac and cheese. For me specifically, the 8 ams, hard classes, and 3 hour labs make it hard to stay motivated. I originally chose to come to Austin College because I received a great scholarship and was told it was a great school to study pre-medicine. It can be hard for me to stay focused and motivated on my goals after receiving a low grade in organic chemistry, for example, or having to wake up for an 8 am class, which is ironic considering I had to do this everyday for most of my life. This year in particular has been the toughest yet, and I think the Incentive Theory best explains why I not only was motivated to come to college, but why I am still motivated to stay as a pre-med student.

Incentive theory basically emphasizes the effects of external stimuli on behavior, as it states that behaviors are controlled primarily by external motives. In my case, I am entrinsically motivated by secondary incentives, which means my motivation stems from external stimuli which are viewed as rewarding as a result of my association of them with other pleasures. I think this theory fits my style of motivation because it acknowledges the role of the future and I am a person who always thinks about the future; it can be hard for me to live in the present. Whenever my alarm goes off at 7:30 am or whenever I feel annoyed about having to go to OChem lab, I will take a few breaths, relax, and think of the future. By succesfully completing these courses, I will be able to go to medical school, so as to work as a doctor. The incentive here is working as a doctor. My mind associates this job with several rewards, including happiness as a result of doing someting I love, the many potential patients I will help save, and of course the living and respect I will earn. In addition, motivation to study for a hard class stems from knowing that if I study, I will make a good grade. Again, the incentive here is the good grade. In my mind, I associate good grades with feeling happy as a result of my hard work paying off, a good grade for that class in the long run, a good GPA, and a sense of achievement.

This idea of achievement also reflects another theory which I think describes why most people are motivated: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This theory also emphasizes the role of the future in motivation. Specifcially, the top two levels, the needs for self-worth and self-actualization, play an important role in the lives of students. These levels are what motivate us in our academic achievements and in trying to be the best we can be at what we do. As in high school, I think I will best be able to maintain motivation until graduation by always working towards the future. Anytime I have low motivation, my “intervention” will be to relax, think about if/how the beneifts of what I am doing outweigh the costs, and then apply these benefits towards my future life.


The Effects of Divorce

Over the years, divorce has not only increased in frequency, but has increased in acceptance throughout Western culture. Members born in earlier generations most likely do not need statistics to recognize the fact more marriages end in divorce today than they did decades ago. Perhaps this trend was initially a result of the modification of traditional gender roles which took place in the 20th century (I.e. the addition of more women to the workforce, the development of birth control, and even simply the incorporation of the 19th amendment). Although divorce primarily serves as a method for married couples to make changes which each individual hopes will promote future happiness, it also serves as an extremely heavy change in events for the children involved. In an article on the impact of divorce on children and adolescents, psychologist Carl Pickhardt claims “divorce tends to intensify the child’s dependence and it tends to accelerate the adolescent’s independence.” He claims children tend to experience a short-term, but anxious reaction to divorce as their worlds become filled with negative and even frightening ideas about what will happen in the future and if whether or not they are at some fault. His claims are quite reasonable, as divorce really does have a strong impact on any child of any age, causing them to mentally grow up real fast. Firsthand observation of divorce really symbolizes firsthand observation of life in the real world. This unexpected exposure to the negativities of the real world may be the reason why adolescents tend to exhibit aggressive and controlling behavior towards their own lives, as Pickhardt claims they do.

Although divorce is never an ideal resolution to marital conflict, I personally believe parents who retain their marriage for the sake of the kids promote a false sense of security and well-being. Children are impressionable, as they have not yet solidified their own foundation of happiness. In addition, children are most influenced by their parents. If a child observes an unhappy marriage despite their parents’ marital intactness and false claims of happiness, how will they know what a happy marriage really looks like? Furthermore,  an article published in Scientific American states that divorce really only affects most children in the short run, although these effects are quite negative and emotionally draining. This claim ties in with the claims made in Pickhardt’s article. The journal goes on to claim that children of divorce do well in the long run and cites studies which state it is actually the high levels of parental conflict which contribute to a child’s poor performance. I agree with this claim and the research which supports it. If a divorce truly allows each parent to live a happier life, then a more peaceful home environment is promoted. I also liked how the article offered suggestions which will allow the children to fare better after the divorce, such as suggesting that parents should consistently provide emotional warmth and comfort throughout the divorce, while minimizing conflict associated with the divorce (or at least minimize exposure to conflict). For the most part, I was in agreement with the article until I came upon the last line, which states: “most children bounce back and get through this situation with few if any battle scars.” While I do believe divorce results in more negative short-term effects which diminish with time, I do believe children of divorce always carry the battle scar of divorce with them, as symbolized by things such as the absence of a parent in the household. Much like a scar, a person will always possess the memories associated with a divorce and will live with the internal effects the divorce caused them (although they will diminish- like a scar).

One final thing to mention is the influence of divorce on self-esteem. A quasi experiment performed by undergraduate students at Indiana University South Bend revealed there to be no significant effects between parental marital status, gender, and adult self-esteem. It points out the important role the environment plays in child development and suggests divorce tends to disrupt a child’s developmental environment. One very plausible claim made is if the pre-divorce period is filled with conflict and fighting, a divorce will practically relieve the child’s self-esteem. While I do agree with the point which the study attempts to make, I think further studies should be conducted to determine an average rate at which these children regain their self-esteem. It would appear to me that while adding a divorce to conflict would resolve much tension and anger, it would only result in fearful thoughts made by the child, such as pondering if whether or not they are at fault for the divorce. Overall, I believe that like most impactful and traumatizing events, the evident effects of divorce diminish with time. That is not to say a person does not still retain the emotional effects and past memories associated with the divorce throughout their lifetime.

 

Works Cited:

https://www.iusb.edu/ugr-journal/static/2002/krider.php

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/surviving-your-childs-adolescence/201112/the-impact-divorce-young-children-and-adolescents

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-divorce-bad-for-children/


Personality Test Results

The results I got for the Humanmetrics Jung Typology Test revealed my type to be INFJ (Introvert, iNtuitive, Feeling, Judging). These results only indicated slight preferences; for example, I got a 9% preference for introversion over extroversion. Upon obtaining this result, I immediately had to acknowledge the credibility of this test because I obtained the exact same result about 4 years ago when I took it for my sophomore English class. I do agree with this assessment of my personality; I agreed with it even back then. I also agree with the fact that all of my preferences are small, which shows I can be flexible with my personality at certain times. For example, I am an introverted person, but I do not let this influence my relationships with others and I can become extroverted quite easily (usually when I am in a really good mood). People are often surprised if I raise my voice or socialize with everyone in a room. The INFJ type description even stated that we tend to be mistaken for extroverts. I actually agree and acknowledge that my personality fits all aspects of the description. I will often times withdraw myself from others around me, especially the people I am closer to when I am upset, stressed, or physically/emotionally depleted. I have had so many people get upset with me for this, but I personally do not believe getting upset with someone for needing time alone due to  being stressed or emotionally unstable is the right way to handle it. This also supports the idea that only people who have extensive experience with others of this personality type are best at interacting with us. The second “Jungian Personality Type” I obtained was ISFJ. I am not surprised by this, as I was only 6% intuitive on the first test. I would say I am more of a sensor, as I prefer to stick to an exact time schedule and find it hard to look beyond facts. The “Open Source Psychometrics Project” revealed percentile scores of: 33 for extroversion, 16 for emotional stability, 30 for agreeableness, 92 for conscientious, and 46 for intellect/imagination. I was most surprised by the percentiles regarding emotional stability and conscientiousness, as they were quite extreme values. The percentiles were derived by comparing my individual score with the scores of others. It is not so much that I disagree with these two extreme results, but am just surprised by them. It described conscientious people as being more careful and diligent, which describes me pretty well. I am unsure if I am more surprised at the fact I am so much more conscientious and emotionally unstable than so many others or the fact so many others appear to be so unlike myself. I think my strict carefulness and emotional instability stem from past events and learning about what I should and should not do from them. The Color Test was interesting in that it tried to prevent the test-taker’s working memory from storing the first order in which colors were chosen from the second order; basically, it tried to prevent the test-taker from turning the personality test into a memory test. The creators claimed their test to be quite an accurate one, as it is used by doctors and psychologists in facilitating patient diagnoses. They also mentioned the results one obtains from the test are not a conclusive diagnosis and that one should see a doctor or psychiatrist for proper diagnosis. I thought this disclaimer was important and caused the test to not mislead others into assuming the test results are the final say. On the other hand, I thought my personal results were pretty broad and not very useful. For example, the results indicated I appear to be seeking my own identity, along with nurturing relationships and a desire to protect my emotions. I honestly believe this to be the case for the majority of young adults. Even though I was not asked about my age, I still feel this to be the case. The results were pretty accurate in describing my desire to avoid conflict and reduce stress. This particular result actually reinforces the result I obtained from the first personality test with regards to how INFJ types withdraw themselves from others to reduce their own stress.


The “Mozart Effect”

As a musician who has performed various pieces of Saint-Saens, who was one of the composers which Zell Miller planned to include in his compilation tape, this topic caught my attention. I can hardly recall the number of times I have heard statements made to me by past directors and conductors on how having instrumental musical talent promotes cognitive function and helps reduce the chance of Alzheimer’s Dementia. While pieces such as “Moon River” are enjoyable and in fact soothing, Governor Miller, who claimed to have had extensive research and personal experience with the connection between music and child development, really should have better examined the experimental designs of some of these studies. The 1993 study performed by Rauscher et al. attempted to prove the causal relationship between musical activity and spatial reasoning based on the idea musical activity and complex cognitive functions share inherent neural firing patterns throughout the cortex. They tested this hypothesis on 36 undergraduate students specializing in psychology. This marks Miller’s first flaw in his utilization of this study: the study was not conducted on babies or infants, but was conducted on undergrad psychology students. This means that the obtained results would not be generalizable to Miller’s intended population. Statistical analyses revealed students who listened to Mozart Sonatas did exhibit improvement in spatial reasoning tasks. On the other hand, one result they did fine was that students who were subject to both silence and Mozart Sonata exhibited no significant day-to-day improvement. This finding really does not promote conformation of the hypothesis, as it just shows how Mozart’s Sonatas only facilitate spatial task improvements when participants are exposed to them every time they perform a spatial task. The researchers also experimented on how music could improve short term memory, which they were unable to confirm, probably as the prefrontal cortex, which is underdeveloped in most undergraduates, plays a role in this. They also found preschoolers who had music lessons performed better on object assembly tests. One point made in the research article touched on how music training enhances pattern developments of neuron groups, which appears to be a valid point as it reflects the idea of long-term potentiation. Overall, one statement made in the conclusion reflects my opinion on if Miller’s idea was a good one or not. They state their hopes of integrating music training into schools, as the effect of long-term musical exposure is what appeared to promote the most improvement. I personally believe that music very well affects cognitive performance, but only when someone is repeatedly exposed to musical learning and training for long periods of time, in the same way musicians are for example. Cognitive functions are strengthened best with repeated exposure (promotion of long-term potentiation) throughout one’s lifetime. One final thing to note is that Miller’s idea does not really follow the privacy clause dictated by the 14th amendment. It is unlikely every parent agrees with Miller or the research used by Miller. What is likely is not every parent would appreciate the state attempting to convince them of how best to parent. At the end of the day, it is not the decision of the state to decide what is most helpful for child development, as this is the private right of the parents, not to mention every child is different.


Recreational vs. Medical Uses of Marijuana

I have never had a particularly strong opinion when it came to the legalization of marijuana for recreational purposes. In my belief, everyone has been endowed with free will, a sense of right and wrong, and a “gut-feeling” of knowing what is best. In addition, tax-paying citizens who do choose to buy marijuana have a greater economic role and are in fact helping to supply a business (although it is not always a legal business found nationally). On the other hand, people of all ages, backgrounds, and states of wealth can become addicted and put their health at risk. With this being the case, I do think when it comes to the recreational use of marijuana, the detriments outweigh the benefits.

Based on the medical approach, there was always more evidence for medical marijuana than evidence against it. Many people tend to forget this drug is in fact derived from a plant which was utilized by many eastern cultures in ancient times for its pain-relieving and relaxing properties. When it comes to modern times, these pain-relieving and relaxing properties are highlighted for medical purposes. Those who get this drug prescribed to them for medical purposes do not take it the same way those who use the drug for recreational purposes do. Based on experiences I have seen with my own two eyes, I definitely think there is a major difference between people who use marijuana medically and people who use it recreationally; there has to be a difference because if a patient were to become addicted to the drug, the entire purpose of using it would be defeated. Furthermore, under the Controlled Substances Act, medical marijuana is listed as a Schedule 1 drug, which means the DEA recognizes the high potential for abuse and is prepared to take an actions necessary in case of this happening. I actually learned all of this over the summer when studying to become a pharmacy technician. The FDA and DEA have such tight control over the dispensing of Schedule 1 drugs that the typical pharmacy is not allowed to serve as a Schedule 1 drug provider. For the most part, research shows marijuana does in fact help with pain and anxiety. In addition, the protocols for dispensing this drug are pretty strict. On the other hand, many physicians who decide on this drug for a patient are doing so for research purposes. With any research, things can go wrong and the effects this drug has may not be generalizable (going back to the five major questions of successful experimental research). Many of the research articles promoting the use of medical marijuana may have bias and the positive results could always be due to some kind of correlational effect, not a direct cause and effect relationship.


My Current Study Habits

When it comes time to study for an exam, I first plan which day I will begin studying, along with which days I will be able to study from that day until the exam, given I will have time to. Being an organized person (some might say overly-organized), I find planning to be essential when it comes to successful studying, especially if you plan to study more than one day before the exam, which I always try my best to do. This leads me to my next point, which is I usually start studying for an exam 3 days before it takes place. In addition, I will not study all the material in one day, but rather I spread the material out over the 3 days. Most of the exams I take for my biology courses, for example, cover what seems like an immense amount of material. In this case, what I like to do is study and make sure I understand and remember the first part of the material during the first day of my studying, doing the same for the second and final portions of the material during the second and final days of my studying. It is really helpful to study bits at a time, conquer these bits, and then move on to other bits. I am not the kind of student who is able to cram the day/night before nor do I stay up super late studying. By beginning my studies 3 days in advance and studying for 2 to 3 hours each day, I never have to worry about losing too much sleep or suffering from anxiety as a result of putting off my studying and having to worry about whether or not I will be able to get through all of the material. Another point, which I touched on earlier, is I do not stay up all night, let alone extremely late, studying for an exam. This has been the case for all of my life. My favorite professor even told my class about how the risks tend to outweigh the benefits when it comes pulling an all-nighter. I also am just the kind of person who tends to make stupid mistakes on tests as a result of not being able to really function properly when I am tired.

For certain classes, such as math classes and general/inorganic chemistry classes, I first review the conceptual material and equations, then work problems. For me, working problems before an exam is the best way of practicing the material and applying what I know. For other classes in which I need to memorize names, structures, and functions, I make flash cards. Finally, the most common thing I do when studying is make study sheets. By writing down major points and concepts based on what I know, I am practicing the very thing which will be asked of me on the test: to write down major points and concepts based on what I know and have learned. I also learned early on how important of a role taking breaks has on memory. What I mean by this is that it is best to study a certain amount of material, take a break from it, and then return studying by first trying to recall on your own what you know; I make sure to do this as well.

When studying for my first psychology exam, I divided the work into 3 days, as the exam covered 3 chapters. Each day, I would review what I read in a chapter in the book, along with my notes for the chapter. I next made a study sheet summarizing and relating important details from the chapter. Before starting on the next chapter the next day, I would review my study sheet and quiz myself. On the third day, I answered some of the questions found on the practice exam so as make sure I was prepared for the level of detail this exam would consist of. Since taking the exam and starting to learn the material which will be on the second exam, I think I may need to use flashcards this time. This is because one of the chapters is a very detailed one on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. I will have to learn the complex names of many structures and what these structures do. I also think I should answer questions from the practice exam each day I study, specifically work on questions which relate to the chapter I already reviewed, instead of only looking at the practice exam on last day after I have covered everything.